By Christopher Catherwood
Western civilization started within the center East: Judaism and Christianity, in addition to Islam, have been born there. For over a millennium, the Islamic empires have been prior to the West in studying, know-how and drugs, and have been militarily way more strong. It took one other 300 centuries for the West to seize up, and overtake, the center East.
Why does it look diverse now? Why does Osama bin encumbered see 1918, with the autumn of the Ottoman Empire, because the 12 months every thing replaced? those concerns are defined in historic aspect right here, in a fashion that intentionally seeks to move in the back of the rhetoric to the roots of current conflicts. a quick heritage of the center East is vital studying for an clever reader desirous to comprehend what one of many world's key areas is all about.
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Extra info for A Brief History of the Middle East
Consult the works of Abdel-Karim Rafeq, Jean-Paul Pascual and Colette Establet, Linda Shilcher, Philip Khoury, James Reilly, Brigitte Marino, Elizabeth Thompson, and others for premodern and modern Damascus. 37. Kenneth McPherson’s paper in the volume provides a valuable overview of comparative issues of this sort. 38. See Res¸at Kasaba’s article in this volume. It must be noted, however, that although the great Calcutta massacre of August 1946, which left some 4,000 Hindus and Muslims dead, was an urban phenomenon, the worst of the partition violence in 1947 involving the massacre of several hundred thousand people occurred in rural Punjab.
Transfer, Taxation, Distribution, and Export Large-scale transit commerce and regional exchanges gave rise on both shores to port cities that performed speciﬁc functions. They were junction points between the caravan routes and sea lanes, or between sea routes and interior-coastal trade. 18 Some of the port cities served as markets for the local distribution of goods. Jiddah, Aden, and Mokha, in particular, lay at the intersection of multiple merchant networks. The port cities also contributed to the ﬁnancing of the state apparatus in the hinterland.
The picture of burgeoning seventeenthcentury trade in the Red Sea and eastern Mediterranean painted by the Introduction 17 French scholars of the Maison Me´diterrane´ene des Sciences de l’Homme45 ﬁts well with the impression gained by scholars of the Indian Ocean during the height of the Mughal hegemony. 46 Internecine warfare had increasingly given way to elite consumption and display, beneﬁting the textile industry, all forms of smithing, leathermaking, and specialist agricultural production.
A Brief History of the Middle East by Christopher Catherwood