By Wittmann Heiner
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Additional resources for Aesthetics in Sartre and Camus. The Challenge of Freedom (Dialoghi Dialogues: Literatur Und Kultur Italiens Und Frankreichs)
Op. , p. 455-503, esp. p. , p. 480: "Freud, however, aims at constituting a vertical determinism. In addition because of this bias his conception necessarily is going to refer to the subject's past. " 3 ^ Op. , p. " 3 5 K. Jaspers, Allgemeine Psychopathologie fur Studierende, Arzte und Psychoiogen, 3rd enlarged and revised edition, Berlin: Springer, 1923, p. 331, ditto, General Psychopathology. Vol. II, p. 537-546, esp. p. 538. 3 *> Sartre par Sartre, in: Situations, IX, p. 103. 3 ? Cf. S. de Beauvoir, The Prime of Life.
7 He justifies this rejection by explaining that the whole, the universal, is always present in any one epoch, thereby making it clear that an epoch, while only comprising a universal moment in history, is infinitely complex, even if it reveals only a few conditions of human existence. In the preface to The Family Idiot, Sartre explains the same idea with the notion of the 'universal singular', ("universel singulier")8. But this universal single person is merely an individual. A human being is completely determined by the circumstances he is part of and by his epoch, reproducing these as something unique.
Jaspers, General Psychopathology. Vol. II, Baltimore, London: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997, p. 537 ff. 29 Cf. ditto, General Psychopathology. Vol. II, p. 537-546, esp. 539. 30 Cf. Sartre, Being and Nothingness, p. 70-94. 31 Ibid. 34 Like Jaspers35 he opposed the determination derived from Freudian psychoanalysis with which humans are confronted from without and which, in an interview, he later compares with Marxist theory36, thereupon calling them both theories of external conditioning.
Aesthetics in Sartre and Camus. The Challenge of Freedom (Dialoghi Dialogues: Literatur Und Kultur Italiens Und Frankreichs) by Wittmann Heiner