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By Walker O. Smith Jr., Jacqueline M. Grebmeier

ISBN-10: 0875902634

ISBN-13: 9780875902630

Published through the yankee Geophysical Union as a part of the Coastal and Estuarine reports, quantity 49.

The Arctic Ocean is the least understood ocean on the earth, and but its value to the world's oceans and weather is massive. for instance, it's been instructed that the Arctic is the area probably to be laid low with elevated atmospheric temperatures which would ensue due to anthropogenic releases of greenhouse gases. It additionally performs a severe position in international oceanic movement, in that it modulates the formation of deep water within the North Atlantic through ice export. regardless of its pivotal function in worldwide tactics, the Arctic is still poorly understood. This quantity is an try to spotlight and synthesize a number of the fresh advances in our wisdom of Arctic oceanography and comprises subject matters that may curiosity actual, organic, chemical, and geological oceanographers in addition to atmospheric scientists.

That the Arctic is so poorly recognized relative to different oceans isn't a surprise. it really is mostly ice-covered all year long, with just some of its continental cabinets turning into ice?]free in summer season. Its ice is generally multi?]year and intensely thick, making penetration into the deeper parts very unlikely other than via the main strong ice?]breakers. even if, in recent times new applied sciences were utilized to the Arctic, and our realizing of the actual, chemical, organic and geological procedures which take place inside it truly is quickly expanding. satellite tv for pc sensors notice the Arctic regularly, permitting us to keep on with ice movement, storms, and openings within the pack ice that had by no means been saw formerly. Moorings, ships and buoys now can face up to some of the rigors of the Arctic, and observations of the water column and seabed have gotten extra universal. ultimately, as a result of its significance to worldwide strategies, reports of the Arctic are attracting scientists not just from Arctic countries yet from international locations worldwide. Arctic oceanography really has turn into a world effort.

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B. Katsaros,A. A. Scott,Satelliteobservations of a polarlow orbitovertheNorwegianSeaby SpecialSensorMicrowaveRadiometer, J. ,98(C8), 14,487-14,506, 1993. , Informationfusionin seaiceremotesensing,Chapter25, inMicrowaveRemoteSensing of SeaIce, ed. by F. Carsey,AGU GM-68, WashingtonDC, 431-441, 1992. , andA. Thorndike,Sea ice motionas a drunkard'swalk,J. ,90, 965-974, 1985. , Characteristicsof Arctic winter sea ice from satellite multispectralmicrowave observations, J. , 91,975-994, 1986. ,Multiyeariceclassification andsummericecoverusingArcticpassivemicrowavedata, J.

24 SatelliteRemoteSensingof the ArcticOcean P BAND HH L BAND HH [' BAND P I,•U L E:AND UI, C BAND Bfq•,Igl HH Figure 9. 7 cm) images(courtesyof J. Crawford of the NASA/Jet PropulsionLaboratory). Sincethe sea-icecoveris constantly changing,a severalday compositeof altimeterdata would be difficult to interpret. As an imagingsystem overthe ocean,SAR can provideinformationaboutmesoscaleoceancurrentcirculation patternsincludingfrontal boundariesand eddies,slicks, internalwaves,and rapid mesoscalewind-field variations [Apel, 1987; Raney, 1993].

Kyle, and the Nimbus-7 Team, The Nimbus-7 global cloudclimatology,Bul. of theAm. Meteor. ,69(7), 743-752, 1988. , Seaice atlasof NorthernBaffin Bay,Zurcher GeographischeSchrifien,7(ZGS 7), Zurich, 142 pp, 1982. A. Shuchman,K. Davidson,O. Frette, G. M. Johannessen, Coastaloceanstudieswith ERS-1 SAR during NORSEX '91, Proceedingsof the First ERS-1 Symposium:Spaceat theServiceof our Environment,Cannes,France, November4-6, 1992,ESA SP-359, 113-117, 1993. , Zum Problem der Meereswasserfarbe, Ann. de Hydrogr.

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Arctic Oceanography: Marginal Ice Zones and Continental Shelves by Walker O. Smith Jr., Jacqueline M. Grebmeier

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