By Karl F. Nordstrom
This publication analyzes the tradeoffs interested in restoring shores and dunes on intensively built coasts, the best techniques to take advantage of, and the how you can train and contain stakeholders. It identifies recovery innovations that increase common approaches and make coastal landforms extra dynamic whereas protecting their price for shore defense. as well as ecological values, the concept that of recovery is increased to incorporate actual, financial, social and moral rules. Compromise administration strategies are steered to deal with the wishes of alternative consumer teams, together with municipal managers and person homeowners. The technique of overcoming inertia or antagonism to environmentally pleasant activities also are mentioned. The ebook is written for coastal scientists, engineers, planners and bosses, and serves as an invaluable supplementary reference textual content for classes in coastal administration, ecology and environmental ethics.
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Extra info for Beach and Dune Restoration
1998) and Italy (Cammelli 2006; Nordstrom et al. 2008). Marble beaches are not likely to form and survive under natural conditions. Marble is relatively rare, and as a carbonate rock it is subject to karst formation and sub-surface drainage, leaving little surface runoff to deliver sediment to streams and then to the coast. If a marble beach did form from direct wave erosion of a marble formation, it would be subject to rapid loss from abrasion. 3) to protect shorefront roads, protect sand beaches managed and groomed for intensive recreation, protect a nature reserve, and re-create beaches seaward of seawalls in a resort (Nordstrom et al.
The most common means of sediment delivery is by hydraulic means through pipelines. g. <200 000 m3 (Mu˜noz-Perez et al. 2001). These operations can avoid the large mobilization costs of using dredges, but they interfere with traffic and damage roadways and the resulting sediment may be less compacted when placed on the beach (Dean 2002). Large-scale operations most frequently use sediment from offshore sources. Dean (2002) estimates that 95% of all sand volumes placed in beach nourishment projects are through dredging from offshore because large quantities of suitable sand are often available 1–20 km offshore and unit costs for delivery are relatively low.
Uprush (particularly during storms) increases the elevation of the berm crest (Lorang 2002), and the steep slope of the foreshore above mean sea level provides protection against runup from future storms. Coarse gravel (cobbles, boulders) is less likely to move than sand or pebbles, increasing stability of shoreline position and retention of fill materials (Everts et al. 2002; US Army Corps of Engineers Seattle 2002; Komar et al. 2003). Interest in nourishing beaches with gravel as an alternative to sand is increasing because of its stability (Johnson and Bauer 1987; Komar et al.
Beach and Dune Restoration by Karl F. Nordstrom