By Véronique Migonney
Came upon within the twentieth century, biomaterials have contributed to the various impressive medical and technological developments made in fresh many years. This publication introduces and info the tenets of biomaterials, their relevance in a diverse fields, functional functions in their items, and power developments of the future years. A entire source, the textual content covers the explanations that yes houses of biomaterials give a contribution to precise purposes, and scholars and researchers will get pleasure from this exhaustive textbook.
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Extra info for Biomaterials
40 Biomaterials As already discussed, metals and alloys possess at their surfaces a stable oxide layer which protects them from corrosion. However, this thin layer is in the order of nanometers and may be destroyed by wear and fretting. If the oxide film remains unrepaired, corrosion arises and metallic ions release increases [HAN 99]. Thus, passivation is one of the most important surface modifications applied to metallic medical devices. Passivation enhances the protective oxide film by changing its composition, structure and thickness [BAL 08].
Moreover, with a porosity of 30%, TCP-based implants are still radiologically visible after 2 years of implantation, while the resorption is very fast and occurs after a few months for highly porous TCP [BON 04]. As a consequence, the surface area has to be carefully controlled to ensure appropriate resorption rates and mechanical behaviors. 5. Glass-ionomers Glass-ionomers are hybrid glass polymer composites used as cements in a wide range of dental restorations since they are more esthetical than metallic materials.
2. 2. Stainless steel Stainless steel has high strength, chemical inertness and resistance to corrosion due to the presence of chromium (Cr) that forms a thin oxide film which resists oxidation (Cr2O3) (a minimum of 12% of Cr is necessary to prevent corrosion). 1). 03%). This low amount of carbon reduces carbide precipitation at grain boundaries (Cr23C6), thus the Cr Materials Used in Biomaterial Applications 35 depletion from adjacent zones, and therefore minimizes in vivo corrosion. Indeed, zones with reduction of Cr content are more susceptible to intergranular corrosion because of a less stable passive oxide film [PIL 09].
Biomaterials by Véronique Migonney