Download e-book for kindle: Biomedical Hydrogels: Biochemistry, Manufacture and Medical by Steve Rimmer

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By Steve Rimmer

ISBN-10: 1845695909

ISBN-13: 9781845695903

Hydrogels are extremely important for biomedical purposes simply because they are often chemically manipulated to adjust and regulate the hydrogel’s interplay with cells and tissues. Their flexibility and excessive water content material is identical to that of traditional tissue, making them tremendous appropriate for biomaterials functions. "Biomedical hydrogels" explores the various diversity and use of hydrogels, targeting processing equipment and novel purposes within the box of implants and prostheses. half one among this booklet concentrates at the processing of hydrogels, masking hydrogel swelling behaviour, superabsorbent cellulose-based hydrogels and rules of novel hydrogel items, in addition to chapters concentrating on the constitution and houses of hydrogels and assorted fabrication applied sciences. half covers present and novel functions of hydrogels, together with chapters on spinal disc and cartilage alternative implants, hydrogels for ophthalmic prostheses and hydrogels for wound therapeutic applications.  The final bankruptcy addresses the position of hydrogels in imaging implants in situ.

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Additional resources for Biomedical Hydrogels: Biochemistry, Manufacture and Medical Applications (Woodhead Publishing in Materials)

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This chapter surveys the design and the manufacture of cellulose-based hydrogels, which are extensively investigated due to the large availability of cellulose in nature, the intrinsic degradability of cellulose and the smart behaviour displayed by some cellulose derivatives. The sorption mechanism of cellulose-based hydrogels is discussed, as a function of the desired application. Key words: cellulose derivatives, hydrogels, crosslink, swelling, thermodynamics, manufacturing applications. 1 Introduction Hydrogels are macromolecular networks widely used in the biomedical industry for different applications and are capable of absorbing, retaining and releasing water solutions in a reversible way and in response to specific environmental stimuli.

In particular, for a polyelectrolyte network, characterized by fixed charges on the macromolecular backbone, there are four polymer properties affecting polymer swelling: (1) the polymer chain hydrophilicity, which promotes polymer–solvent mixing and thus promotes material swelling when in contact with water and water solutions; (2) the presence of fixed ionic charges, which induces a ‘Donnan-type’ effect, an osmotic effect associated with the concentration of ionic charges in the hydrogel and induces more water to penetrate the hydrogel to dilute this higher charge concentration; (3) the electrostatic repulsion between the charges of the same sign present on the polymer backbone, which tends to expand the macromolecular network and thus promotes polymer swelling; and (4) the elastic response of the crosslinks, which is entropic in nature, stabilizes the polymer chains in the hydrogel network and counteracts polymer swelling.

As opposed to physical hydrogels, which show flow properties, stable and stiff networks of cellulose can be prepared by inducing the formation of covalent, irreversible crosslinks among the cellulose chains. , high-energy radiation) can be used to form stable cellulose-based networks. The degree of crosslinking, defined as the number of crosslinking sites per unit volume of the polymer network, affects the diffusive, mechanical and degradation properties of the hydrogel and can be controlled to a certain extent during the synthesis.

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Biomedical Hydrogels: Biochemistry, Manufacture and Medical Applications (Woodhead Publishing in Materials) by Steve Rimmer

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