By W.H. Ransom
Lately development mess ups and the ensuing complaints and awards for damages have often been within the information. the largest headlines can have been reserved for structural mess ups and entire collapses. yet we should always now not disregard the fewer newsworthy disasters comparable to leaky roofs, damp partitions, dropped foundations and rotted trees. This publication offers functional counsel at the prevention of failure by means of describing the character and reason behind the commonest defects in constructions, after which indicates how they need to be kept away from in layout and building.
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Additional resources for Building Failures: Diagnosis and Avoidance
In its passage, it may be cooled to the dew-point, causing condensation at some point within the constructional materials, in the spaces between them or at cold bridges, which are localized cool surfaces interrupting areas of better thermal insulation, for example, lintels. Interstitial condensation, that is, condensation within the thickness of a material or structure, can be potentially harmful. A main effect of excessive moisture reaching the inside of a building —whether arising from moisture trapped during construction, as ground water, as direct rain penetration or from human activities—is to increase the relative humidity and the risk of condensation, and assist the growth of fungi (see Fig.
Surface etching can occur if sheets are closely stacked under damp conditions, and if alkali from paint removers splashes on to glass and is not removed. Thermal stresses can cause cracking, chiefly because glass has a rather different coefficient of thermal expansion than common framing materials. Proper allowance must be made in design and construction to accommodate differential movement and this aspect is dealt with in more detail in the section on cladding. 7 MORTARS AND RENDERINGS Most present-day mortars consist of cement and sand—with or without an air-entraining agent—or cement, lime and sand.
Water freezing within the pores of concrete can cause disruption. Susceptibility to such attack is greatest with poor-quality concrete used in wholly exposed positions, such as kerbs and bridges. Goodquality, low-permeability concrete, used in most building situations, is not affected. Frost resistance can be increased greatly through the judicious use of air-entraining agents. Water-soluble sulphates occur in some soils, notably the London, Oxford and Kimmeridge Clays, the Lower Lias and Keuper Marl.
Building Failures: Diagnosis and Avoidance by W.H. Ransom