By Vaclav Smil
Content material: China's Biophysical Foundations -- My chinese language reviews -- demanding situations Of figuring out -- Interdisciplinary views -- power -- part a Century Of Advances -- carrying on with significance Of conventional Energies -- A Failed technique -- From a brand new Saudi Arabia To issues approximately Oil defense -- A extraordinary Shift In power Intensities -- meals -- The World's maximum Famine -- From Subsistence To Satiety -- nutritional Transitions -- Nitrogen In China's Agriculture -- Can China Feed Itself? -- setting -- Attitudes And Constraints -- the 1st Of The 5 parts -- China's surroundings And safeguard -- price Of China's Environmental switch -- Megaprojects And China's setting -- having a look forward by way of in retrospect -- Failed Forecasts -- Contending traits
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Additional resources for China's past, China's future : energy, food, environment
47 The performance of China’s cement industry, which consumes about 5 per cent of all commercial energy, is a good example of possible efficiency gains. Its output has roughly quintupled since 1980, with more than 500Mt (nearly a quarter of the entire global output) produced in over 7,000 plants. 48 In contrast, too many small local industrial enterprises remain highly inefficient, and major efficiency gains are yet to be made in household energy consumption. Hardly any of today’s Chinese apartments are built with wall and ceiling insulation and double-glazed windows, and even fewer have any individual temperature controls – fiberglass and thermostats in millions of newly built apartments would bring energy savings and environmental benefits for decades to come.
Consequently, Chinese emission factors per unit of delivered useful energy are extraordinarily high in comparison with rates prevailing in Western countries. No matter which yardstick is used – Chinese standards or the World Health Organization (WHO) levels – typical concentrations of particulate matter in Chinese cities are excessive. 23 And many 18 Energy cities fare much worse: Taiyuan and Linfeng in Shanxi, Lanzhou in Gansu, and Mudanjiang in Heilongjiang have recorded annual TSP means above 600mg/m3.
The rise in electricity consumption has been driven not only by rapidly growing industrial demand, but also by an even more rapidly spreading ownership of household appliances – and this means that major efficiency gains can greatly influence future demand. Many Western utilities have become increasingly engaged in demand-side management by providing credit or offering more efficient converters at subsidized rates. China’s opportunities for this kind of efficiency improvement are immense, as the country now ranks as the world’s largest producer of household electric appliances and gadgets.
China's past, China's future : energy, food, environment by Vaclav Smil