By Michael C. Newman, Jr., Morris H. Roberts, Robert C. Hale
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Extra resources for Coastal and Estuarine Risk Assessment (Environmental and Ecological Risk Assessment)
In their view this approach is based upon two flawed assumptions: 1. That greater understanding of the system under study will always result from further scientific study, allowing risks to be more accurately defined and quantified; and 2. That risks (usually commercial) arising from precautionary action taken now are greater than the currently undefined risks (usually human health or environmental) of inaction until the results of further investigations become available. Of relevance to the subject of this book is the Santillo et al.
26. W. , The acute toxicity of 47 industrial chemicals to fresh and saltwater fishes, J. , 1, 303, 1975. 27. , The toxicity of pesticides and organics to mysid shrimps can be predicted from Daphnia spp. , 33, 1545, 1999. 28. htm. 29. Van Straalen, N. M. , Ecotoxicological risk assessment of soil fauna recovery from pesticide application, Rev. Environ. Contam. , 154, 85, 1998. 30. European Commission, Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2000 establishing a framework for community action in the field of water policy, Off.
All European waters will be subject to protection under the Water Framework Directive. Unlike previous water legislation, the directive covers surface water, groundwater, estuaries (or “transitional” waters), and marine waters. • “Good status” for all waters within the next few years, apart from limited exceptions. Good status for surface waters is measured in terms of ecological and chemical quality. Member states will need to establish programs for monitoring these criteria. L1556_frame_C02 Page 31 Monday, July 30, 2001 4:15 PM European Approaches to Coastal and Estuarine Risk Assessment 31 • Water management based on river basins, rather than administrative or political boundaries.
Coastal and Estuarine Risk Assessment (Environmental and Ecological Risk Assessment) by Michael C. Newman, Jr., Morris H. Roberts, Robert C. Hale