By Andrzej Ehrenfeucht, Tero Harju, Ion Petre, David M. Prescott, Grzegorz Rozenberg
Natural Computing is anxious with computation that's happening in Nature. The research of computations in residing cells is likely one of the critical and quickest starting to be components of study during this box. Gene meeting in ciliates (unicellular organisms) is a wonderful instance of such computations, and it truly is attention-grabbing from either the organic and the computational viewpoints. in reality, either biology and the technological know-how of computation have benefited from the interdisciplinary learn at the computational nature of gene meeting – this paintings has helped to elucidate vital organic elements of gene meeting, yielded novel insights into the character of computation, and broadened our knowing of what computation is ready.
This monograph supplies an obtainable account of either the biology and the formal research of the gene meeting strategy. it may be used as a textbook for both graduate classes or seminars.
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Additional info for Computation in Living Cells: Gene Assembly in Ciliates
2. Light microscope photograph of a stained stichotrich showing macronuclei , micronuclei , and food vacuoles. This species has two macronuclei (MA) and four micronuclei (MI). Two food vacuoles (FV) are also visible. m. Courtesy of Gopal Murti The Micronucleus Micronuclei in stichotrichs and other ciliates contain typical eukaryotic chromosomes, and micronuclei divide by mitosis during cell reproduction. However, micronuclear chromosomes differ dramatically in function from chromosomes in the nuclei of other kinds of eukaryotes.
6 contains a diagram of a micronuclear gene that encodes a protein known as ,BTP. It has six lESs, which divide the gene into seven segments, known as macronuclear destined segments, or MDSs 2 IES I MD 3 IES 2 5 4 I£S 3 2 3 I£ S4 4 ! 5 7 6 I £S 5 I£ S6 macroDucJear development 6 7 Fig. 6. A diagram of the arrangement of the six lESs and seven MDSs in the micronuclear gene encoding ,BTP protein . During macronuclear development the lESs are excised and the MDSs are ligated (by overlapping of the ends) to yield a macronuclear gene.
The situation is different if one considers the partial MDS/IES structure in Fig. 2. Applying the hi-rule (see Chap. 3) to pointer P4 yields, as illustrated in Fig. 3a, the MDS/IES structure represented in Fig. 3b, while applying the hi-rule to pointer P5 yields the MDS/IES structure given in Fig. 4b as illustrated in Fig. 4a. These two application of the hi-rule interfere with each other. That is, they cannot be applied independently: after the hi-rule is applied to pointer P4, it can no longer be applied to pointer P5, and, the other way round, after the hi-rule is applied to pointer P5, it can no longer be applied to P4.
Computation in Living Cells: Gene Assembly in Ciliates by Andrzej Ehrenfeucht, Tero Harju, Ion Petre, David M. Prescott, Grzegorz Rozenberg